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Thursday, May 26, 2011



Ans. For problem 3 P.14
Different level of measurement with their respective example is presented and summarized below in the table.
Level of Measurement
Heading in the News paper
Page Number in the News Paper
News Summary
Nominal  Level
 “Stop using taxpayer’s money”.
P. 10A USA Today, Tuesday, March 24, 2009
 Analysis of different people’s opinion on single issue.
Ordinal Level
“Do Women Have a prayer?”
P. 11A USA Today, Tuesday, March 24, 2009
“Women outperform men in several key measures of religious belief and practice”.
Interval Level
“Weather Report”
P. B8 New York Times, Monday, March23, 2009
High and low temperatures for the past five days.
Ratio Level
“Orphan Smart Cars pile up as buyers back out”
P. 1B USA Today, Tuesday, March 24, 2009
Graphical Presentation of sales of Smart cars for 2008 Jan to 2009 Jan.
*Source: USA Today & New York Times
In the first news that is “Stop using taxpayer’s money” there is just the nominal level of measurement. It just says different people’s perspective and standpoint regarding the topic which is criticized and analyzed by the writer. In the second news, “Do Women Have a prayer?” there is order in terms of doing prayer. It says “Women outperform men in several key measures of religious belief and practice”. Therefore, there is clear-cut order in between men and women regarding prayer habit and belief. In other words, there is an order relationship between modalities, but the difference between two successive modalities is not quantifiable, it always corresponds to one unit. In the third news, that is “Weather Report”, temperature is measured in degrees, and the degrees are not words, but numbers corresponding to levels of mercury in a thermometer.  The distance, or interval, between 1 degree and 2 degrees is exactly equal to the distance between 2 degrees and 3 degrees. In the last news, “Orphan Smart Cars pile up as buyers back out” there is the Graphical Presentation of sales of Smart cars for 2008 Jan to 2009 Jan therefore it is a Ratio level of presentation.
Ans. For problem 5 P.14
 Qualitative and quantitative variables are the types of data collected to analyze and interpret various purposes. The main difference between them is the approach of taking data. However, there lies some distinct differences between them and those are listed below with individual examples in a table.
Qualitative Variables
Quantitative Variables
A.    They are the data in the form of images and words.
A.    They are the data in the form of numbers which can be measured.
B.     They are not measurable in nature. Instead, it is interpretable.
B.     They are measurable in nature.
C.     Qualitative analysis means just to detect the presence of a substance in the sample.

C.     Quantitative analysis is the determination of that substance i.e., in which amount it is present in the sample
D.    They are based upon the empirical evidence and aims to describe, explain, and predict.
D.    They are based upon the numerical values expressed as a result of collection of data from the respondents.
E.     Example:
a.       Wireless Phones: Verizon, T-Mobile, AT&T
b.      Response: Agree or Disagree.
c.       Automobile Makers: Ford, Toyota, BMW
E.     Examples:
Age: 0-9, 10-19, 20-39, 40+ (in years)
Number of children: 0-2, 3-5, 6+
Number of students arriving for class.

Example of qualitative data includes the gender or the social category at individual level, the political color of the municipal council at the municipal level, or some other examples of qualitative variables are hair color, eye color, religion, favorite movie, gender, and so on. On the other hand, some examples of quantitative variables are height, weight, and shoe size etc.
Ans. of Problem 15 P. 16:
PepsiCo, Inc (PEP) has the mean recommendation of 2.2 and it has the market price of 52.32 with the increase of 1.63% at 10:45 am of March 25, 2009. In the same date and time, Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) has the mean recommendation of 2.2 but has the market price of 52.70 with a decrease an increase of 0.02%. Hence, looking at the prevailing scenario and the trend, I would recommend the stocks of PepsiCo, Inc. The level of measurement used is interval because the recommendation is done between the ranges of 1 to 5.

Ans. For problem 6 P.28:
 The table and bar chart to summarize the sales of the companies are shown below.
Fourth - Quarter Sales ($ thousands)
Hoden Building Products
J & R Printing, Inc.
Long Bay Concrete Construction
Mancell Electric and Plumbing
Maxwell Heating and Air Conditioning
Mizelle Roofing & Sheet Metals

As per the bar chart, Maxwell Heating and Air Conditioning has the highest fourth quarter sales record than other corporations. Long Bay Concrete Construction has also been successful to do a good business in comparison to others. However, Mizelle Roofing & Sheet Metals has been the lowest of all in terms of the fourth quarter sales.
Ans. Problem 20 P. 46:
 The findings from the given chart are written below one by one.
a.       In total, 200 homes were studied.
b.      Frequency and selling price has the class interval of 50 and percent has the class interval of 25%.
c.       One hundred homes are sold for less than $200,000.
d.      About 75 percent of the homes were sold for less than $250,000.
e.       In the class of $150,000 to $200,000 there were 50 homes which is about 25%.
f.       About 150 homes were sold for less than $225,000.

Ans. Problem 26 P. 48:
 The results are as follows:
a.       The ordinal scale is used to measure the delivery performance. Delivery performance is the qualitative variable.
b.      The frequency table is as follows:
Delivery Performance

c.       The relative frequency table is given below:
Delivery Performance
Relative Frequency

d.      The bar chart is shown below:

e.       The pie chart is shown below:

f.       As per the data and the chart manipulated, we can clearly see that most of the delivery of the package by Speedy Swift is on time. There have been quite a good number of times when the company has also been successful in delighting the customers by delivering the package before the time.
However, there are also the occasions when the package is delivered lately. The company should focus in deducting this rate. Moreover, the company should also focus not to lose any of its packages.

Ans. For problem 40 P.51:
 The given data is summarized in the following table.
TV Channels
TV Viewing (Percent)
Warner Brothers
Others (CNN & ESPN)

To summarize the data in a chart, I have chosen a bar chart because it would interpret the data in a good manner as the percentage in frequency are very near to one another and it may create confusions while viewing the pie chart. The bar chart is as follows:
The above bar char clearly indicates that most of the people enjoy watching shows on CNN and ESPN. However, had these channels been separated then the other speculations could be done easily. Apart from that, CBS is also most watched channel. UPN is the least watched channel compared to others where Warner Brothers is slightly in upper level than UPN.

Blurt it: Science (2007). Differences between qualitative and quantitative variables. Retrieved
   March 21, 2009 from

Wikipedia (2009, February 2). Statistics. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from                                                                 

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