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Sunday, August 7, 2011

Assignment Topic: Leadership Principle


Assignment Topic: Leadership Principle


By: Baral Abita                                                                         
Contents


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract:

Groups and team are the most significant features of organizational life. From different groups of people the work organization and its sub-units are made up. All the activities of an organization need some degree of coordination all the way through the function of groups and teamwork. Team leader are the one who develop the organizational goal, objective and strategy. For achieving the goal and developing the effective leadership, team leader should identify the key contingencies of organization, support the team and different types of team in an organization.

Key Word:  Team, Leadership, leader, team support system contingencies, etc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.     Introduction:

Organizing the performance of employees and directing their attempt in the direction of the aims and goals of the organization, is a vital component of management. This engages the procedure of leadership and the option of a suitable form of the action, performance and behaviour. Leadership is a central feature of organization performance. The manager should understand the nature of leadership power, factors which resolve association with other people and the efficiency of leadership relationship (M. Lurie. J, 2007).
Leader plays a critical role for future of the organization.  They are the one who develop mission, goals and strategies to achieve those goals. Leader determines organization’s inner strength and weakness from the information available inside the organization. At the same time, they analyze and acquire necessary information from outside boundary of organization to grab opportunities and to minimize the threat coming from those environmental forces. In order to identify such strength and weakness within the organization and opportunities a and threat from outside environment, leader should have good understanding of goals, objectives and strategies of the organization and also other important factors such as key contingency factors, team supports and different team types in an organization, employee performance, etc .

1.1 What is leadership?

The process in which an entity member of group or association influences the understanding of events, the option of the goals and plan, the organization of work performance, the inspiration of people to reach the goal, continuation of cooperative relationships, the development of ability and assurance by members, and the mobilization of support and mutual aid from people outside the group or organization. (Yukl’s,  2006).
(Rosabeth Moss Kanter, 2004) argue leadership is not concern about the leader; it is about how he or she put up a confident of everyone else in team. Leaders are liable for both organizations which provide as the keystone of confidence, and for the human contacts which shapes a positive touching atmosphere to encourage and inspire people... Leaders transport confident by supporting high principles in the behaviour they model and recognized proper mechanisms to offer an arrangement for acting on those criteria. 

2.     Key contingency of organization:

The contingency approach of the organizational design takes a view that there is no best universal structure which can fit in an organization and emphasise the need for flexibility structure. For team contingency is something that leader cannot avoid in an organization and it begins from regular function of organization rather than from emergencies. (Stewart Clegg, 2005) Contingency approaches are based on the concept of an organization interacting with elements in its environment and adapting to them. (Albert J. Mills, 2006)
David Needle, 2004 assumes the contingency approach begins with an investigation of the key variables that figure the organization. It continues with hypothesis that the successful organization are those which adapt key influence and gains some sort of excellent fit with their environment. This approach has been very significant in the area of corporate strategy. The strategist goes along with the environmental opportunities and threats through the organization’s own strengths and weakness to enlarge a best strategy for the firm. (David Needle, 2004)
Some Scholars (Burrell and Morgan, 1979) regard the contingency approach as an expansion of the systems analysis of organizations. While (Albert J. Mills, 2006) criticized contingency approach for focusing on a limited series of environmental variable, for being deterministic, and for ignoring both the influence of the organization on its environment and values and behaviour of management and the workforce. Contingency approach present a broad analytical framework, enabling to gain a greater insight into the way business a separate. (David Needle, 2004) The significant contingency variables are size, technology and environment. (Albert J. Mills, 2006)

2.1 Size

Organizational size can be defined as the total number of employees in workplace.  According to Mill, 2006 large organizations have different size and structure than small organizations do. As the organization increase in size, it develops further written rules, policy and procedures, and at same time division of labour turn into more specific. Blau and Schoenherr argued that size is a significant issue for affecting the organization design.  According to (R. H. Hall Et all, 1972) size is the result, not the cause of structure. The key point is that as the organization turn out to be bigger; they become more bureaucratic, in the logic of being considered by top score on balance which measure the degree of formalization, equality and centralization. (Stewart Clegg, ET all 2006)

2.2 Technology

Technology change is typically a crucial feature of the “knowledge economy” and is another key aspect of the contingencies variable which explained organization structure. The ‘technology-structure’ thesis has sought to analyse technology as an independent explanatory variable. The British academic Joan Woodward, for example, classified production technology into three main categories for analysis: unit production (tailor shop), mass production (auto plant) and continuous production. (Pulp mill) (Albert J. Mills, 2006) The key point is that as organizations adopt more routines technologies- technologies with replication and schedule linked with them-they tend to become self-important and as the time goes on the technology. Along with change in technology leader should give training and development to employees which help them to overcome with technological change.  (Stewart Clegg, ET all 2006)

2.3 Environment

The environment is the whole thing outside the organization’s boundary. The cases for the environment essential argue that a huge number of PEST (economic, political, social and legal) factors will affect organizational design. For example: After the attack on the world Trade centre on September 11, 2011,  airline travel decline radically around the world, which result in reorganization of many airlines. In essence, the study done by  UK organizations renowned five different types of environment sorting from stable to least conventional, and two conflicting models of managerial behaviour and organizational structure: the fundamental and mechanistic structures. (Albert J. Mills, 2006) They further suggest that both structural systems represent a logical form of organization. Insecurity in an external environment causes managers to respond in one of two ways. Manager can redesign the firm to boost flexibility, or can give more information regarding environment. (David Needle, 2004)  The key point is that the more certain and conventional the environment in which organizations operate, the more organization will have the bureaucratic structures. (Stewart Clegg, ET all 2006)

3.     Team Support System:

Teams perform all the function of the organization. Every function of project management, research, promotion is done by the teams. Therefore team need a support. The team support includes leader support, regular feedback from leader, and goal setting, effective communication system in an organization. Team support system can be formal and informal same as types of team. Team support system is a sustained set of mutually dependent managerial process that improves the ability of team to work collaboratively and successfully. (Rodney L. Lowman, 2002). Hall and Beyerlein (2000) describe nine managerial processes or support systems which impact team performance. Team support systems include conventional human resource management system such as such as assessment and training.
Team Support system provide organizational and team leader’s direction in budding a helpful organization context that can be successful. Further, organization culture, team goal, objective and aim also have big impact on the team support system. Here organizational culture describes values, beliefs, attitudes and behavioural models or rules that guide how teams in association get work done.  The study done by Pinto and Prescott (1993) conclude managers need to build up an overruling set of objectives to improve level of cross functional collaboration. Higher levels of the cross functional collaboration will get better efficiency of the team support.
 According to Sundstrom, E. D (1999), the types of team support systems are
·         Group Design System: The support system is involved in clarifying roles, tasks, and boundary function, and with personnel selection.
·         Defining Performance System: The support system is involved in the setting and arrangement of performance-related objectives.
·         Information System: The support system is concerned with the instrument for giving the precise information which teams need to make conclusion, correct faults, put work together, and make best use of performance.
·         Performance Appraisal system: The system is concerned with the correct recognition and dimensions of performance-related skill, at the same time, the feedback of performance evaluations to team members.
·         Integration System: The support system is involved with assuring the connection of mutually dependent performing elements, equally vertically and horizontally.
·         Direct Supervisor Support System: This support system is concerned with the growth and operation of suitable leadership, communication and facilitates skills to those who honestly supervise teams.
·         Executive and Manager Support System: The support system is concerned with assuring that leaders expand the managerial context which makes successful teams possible.
·         Training System: The support system is concerned for producing the machineries for growing the performance- related knowledge, talent and abilities of teams.
·         Reward System: The support system is concerned with emphasizing attractive priorities, aims, performances, personality.
According to (Kimball Fisher, 2000) technology is facilitating to supporting team. Today the cost effective technological options such as e-mail, videoconferencing from personal computer, faxes, and internet are supporting team work and involving more team work. Technologies provide substitutions for passing information and co-ordination of role in organization, which let the team to be directed by work and information rather than only by manager.

4.     Types of Teams

In an organization there are two types of team formal and Informal team.

4.1 Formal Team:

Formal team are the team which are formally formed in organization. Formal team is a part of organization structure and is an official and planned rational in decision. Primary focus of formal team is in position and it has predetermined goal.  It is based on the authority and responsibility behaviour. Rule and procedure of organization guide the team member’s behaviour. Formal team used formal hierarchy communication system for communicating with team and rigid to environmental change. Problem solving team, Self- managed team, cross functional team and virtual team are formal team in an organization.  

4.1.1 Problem-Solving teams:

A team of educated employees which is brought together to deal with a specific problem is problem-solving team (William M. Pride, 2008). Size of the team can be large or small according to need and team can use any use any number of method to solve problem. Once the problem is solved, the team normally break up.  According to (Ricky W. Griffin, 2009) high-performing problem-solving teams are often cross- functional, meaning that team members come from many different functional areas. Problem-solving teams are teams that make recommendations for others to implement.
4.1.2 Self-Managed Work teams: A self-managed work team is a formally recognized group of employees who are accountable for an entire work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer. Self-managed work groups originated as an outgrowth of job enrichment.  According to (Robert J. Hughes, 2009) workers on self managed teams are more motivated and satisfied because they have more tasks variety and job control. On many work teams, members rotate through all the jobs for which the team is responsible. Some organization cross-train entire team so that everyone can perform everyone else’s job. Xerox, Procter & Gamble, Ferrari are the famous companies which used self managed team. (William M. Pride, 2008).     
4.1.3. Cross-functional teams: Traditionally, business organized employees into departments based on a common function or speciality. (William M. Pride, 2008) posits a cross-functional team consist s of individuals with altering specialties, expertise, and skills that are brought together to achieve a common task. (James G. Hunt, 2004) argue problem in cross functional units stay focused on matters internal to the functions. In this sense, the functional departments or work units create artificial boundaries which discourage rather than encourage more integrative thinking and active coordination with other parts of the organization.
Member of cross-functional teams can solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative or total systems thinking. Member of cross function teams can solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative or total systems thinking. (James G. Hunt, 2004)
4.1.4. Virtual team:  Virtual team consists of the members who are geographically dispersed but communicate electronically. (William M. Pride, 2008)  In fact, team members may never meet in person but rely solely on email, teleconferences, faxes, voice mail, and other technologic interactions. All team can look at the same drawings, print or specification, so decisions are made much faster. (James G. Hunt, 2004) Virtual teams connect employees on a common task across continents, time zones and organizations.  (William M. Pride, 2008)

4.2. Informal team:

A team which has informal existence in an organization is called informal team.
 It an unofficial and unplanned, the decision is emotional. Informal team don’t have authorized existence in an organization.  Primary focus of informal team is on personal goal and focus on the requirement of people not team.  Norms guide member behaviour of team. It is based on power and politics of the people. It used grapevine communication system which may not have correct format and adapt the environmental change. It co-exists along with formal team.

5.     Conclusion:

Size, environment, and technology are the subject to be change with time.  Along with change of these contingencies leader has knowledge and skill which help him her to develop updated strategies such as skills to grab information from outside environment, skill to properly analysis strength of organization. Team plays a very important role in an organization. Every task in organization is performed by team. Mainly formal team plays an important role in an organization. Therefore leader should be able assign a appropriate goal for specific team. Along with formal team, informal team also co-exist with formal team. Informal exist because of different in team member, which may harmful for organization, leader should try to avoid the formation of informal team. Therefore leader have to develop good strategies, have knowledge of key contingencies of organization context (size, environment and technology), team support system (Group Design System, defining Performance System, information System, performance Appraisal system, integration System, direct Supervisor Support System, executive and Manager Support System, training System, reward System) and team types (formal and informal team) for developing effective team strategies. Furthermore, Leader should have information about performance of team, relationship between the team member, power distribution, goal setting information, team building, quality circles, problem-solving and resolution and effective communication for developing effective team strategies.

Bibliography
1.      Albert J. Mills, Jean C. Helms Mills, Carolyn Forshaw, John Bratton  (2006) Organizational Behaviour in a Global Context, New York, University Toronto Press
2.      Belbin. R. Meredith, (1981), Management Teams, New York, John Wiley and sons
3.      David Needle ( 2004) Business in Context , London, CENGAGE Learning
4.       Gary A. Yukl (2006), leadership in organizations (2006) London, Prentice Hall 
5.      Hall, C. A. & Beyerlein M. M, (2000), Advances in Interdisciplinary studies of work Teams (Volume 5), Stamford, CT: JAI press
6.      James G. Hunt( 2004)  Organizational behaviour  China, Wiley
7.       Kimball Fisher, (2000) leading self-directed work teams: a guide to developing new team leadership ... - New York Mc Grew Hill
8.      M. Lurie. J., (2007), Organization Behaviour, (8th edition), Prentice Hall, London
9.      Pinto N. B, Pinto J. K, & Prescott J. E (1993) Management science, (No publisher given)
10.  Richard M. Burton, Bo Eriksen (2006) Organization design: the evolving state-of-the-art, USA, Springer
11.   Rodney L. Lowman (2002) The California School of Organizational Studies handbook of organizational..., California, San Francisco, Wiley
12.  Rosabeth Moss Kanter (2004) Leadership and the psychology of turnover,  Random House
13.   Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger, Tyrone Pitsis () Managing and organizations: an introduction to theory and practice, London, Sage Publication
14.  Sundstrom E. D, De Meuse K. P. & Futrell. D (1990), Team Work Application and effectiveness American Psychologist, (No publisher given)
15.  Sundstrom, E. D (1999), Supporting work team effectiveness: Best Management practises fostering high performance, San Francisco, Joseey-Bass
16.  Ulrich Hoppe, Maria Feliza Verdejo, Judy Kay, (2003), Artificial intelligence in education: shaping the future of learning through ..., England, IOS Press
17.  William M. Pride, Robert James Hughes, Jack R. Kapoor ( 2009) Business, London, CENGAGE Learning
 

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